UM Medical Center
The University of Maryland Medical Center, a private not-for-profit hospital, is a major tertiary and primary care facility with approximately 750 beds and over 38,000 admissions each year. The medical services consist of over 200 beds divided among a variety of general medicine and subspecialty services. In all units, doctors, students, nurses, clinical pharmacists and support staff work as a team to promote unified and comprehensive care for every patient.
Each medical service is a mixture of patients -- some admitted to the care of the teaching attending and others admitted by full-time faculty attendings. The residents provide the patients' primary care under the supervision of the teaching attending. We have robust non-teaching services where general medicine, oncology and intermediate care (IMC) patients are admitted. Community physicians transfer all the care of their patients to the resident teaching services. First year residents are responsible for the day to day evaluation and management of the patients, writing all orders on their patients. Upper level residents are the leaders of each team and hence have significant clinical and teaching responsibilities.
Medical Inpatient Units
There are 12 medical teams at University Hospital, including 4 general medical services, 2 infectious disease services, 2 MICU Teams, 1 CCU/Telemetry Team, an Advanced Heart Failure Service, and 2 Cancer Center services (solid tumor and leukemia). Teams on the floors and intensive care units are structured in a similar fashion with the resident as team leader supervising interns, subinterns and third year medical students. Attending rounds are held seven days each week. Call on all services is every fourth night on all services. Admissions are strictly capped with interns taking no more than 5 admissions per call. Most admissions are taken by the first year residents and subinterns, thereby providing the upper level residents with ample opportunity to supervise and lead the team.
We are compliant with the latest ACGME Duty Hour Requirements. In 2009, we implemented our 28-hour rule -- a full 18 months ahead of the ACGME's planned new rules for July 2011. We are excited to be a part of the national iCOMPARE trial and are randomized into the intervention (or FLEX) arm of the study. For 2015-2017, the only change we made was for interns to do every 4th overnight call in the MICU and CCU at UMMC (28 hour shifts, rather than the previous 16 hour shifts). The remainder of our curriculum schedule including night float, day float, team call at UMMC and all rotations at the VA and Mercy Medical Center are unchanged. In actual fact, right now our schedule is IDENTICAL to what it was about 4 years ago before the 16-hour rule was implemented for interns. It worked very well for us back then and we are confident that we will have enhance continuity, less patient turn-over, more even work and rest schedules, and improved resident satisfaction in our UMMC ICU's during the iCOMPARE trial.
A fully staffed 7-day/week Night Team System covers all the floor teams and ensures that interns and residents get ample rest and meet 100% of the RRC Duty Hour Requirements. Interns and residents on the general medicine and ID services take admissions using a "drip method" with their last admission at 6 pm. This pattern allows admissions to be staggered so that residents may leave the hospital by 9 PM and have 8-10 hours off between duty shifts. Upper level residents stay overnight while only while on MICU, CCU/telemetry, or Cancer Center rotations. Nocturnists and intensivists are present throughout the night shifts and assist with patient care and supervision.
The non-ICU services consist of 4 General Medicine services (Med 1-4) and 2 Infectious Disease services (Med-ID Gold and Silver). The Med 1-4 services are organized in a Team Call system with the Med-ID teams having individual call with close resident supervision. Med 1-4 consist of one resident and 2 interns who take call as a team every 4th day. Subspecialty faculty attend on Med 1, general internists on Med 2, and academic hospitalists on Med 3 and 4. The Med-ID services have ID faculty and fellow supervision, with 1 resident and 2 interns on each team. Med-ID Gold and Silver alternate q4 call. Interns take their last admission at 6 PM (also with a "drip method" of timed admissions) and sign out to the Night Team at 9 PM. Third and fourth year medical students are members of all teams.
The Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and the Cardiac Care Units (CCU) along with the Advanced Heart Failure Service comprise the mainstay of the resident's training in critical care medicine at UMMC. Interns and residents take overnight call every 4th day for 28 hours (see information about iCOMPARE trial above). PGY-2 residents have a 2-week rotation on the Advanced Heart Failure Service where they work alongside fellows and nurse practitioners. There is no overnight call on this service.
The MICU consists of 2 teams, each with an intensivist, 1 fellow, 2 residents, 4 interns, 1 subintern and 1-2 nurse practitioners. Our state-of-the-art 29-bed MICU has 24/7 intensivists in the MICU at all times. Intensivists, the team resident and night float intern cover the MICU at night.
Patients with cardiac disease are admitted to CCU/Telemetry team (PCS - Primary Cardiology Service). This service focuses on caring for patients with ischemia heart disease, MI's and arrhythmias. The PCS team cares for patients in both the geographic CCU and telemetry unit. The PCS team consists of a cardiology attending, 1 fellow, 4 residents, 4 interns and 1 subintern. A resident and intern cover the cardiology patients at night, with back-up from the cardiology fellow and attending.
A new Advanced Heart Failure Service was established in September 2012. Second year residents rotate on this service for 2 weeks and work alongside fellows and nurse practitioners in the care of these complex patients with CHF, pulmonary hypertension, and transplant needs. Each team consists of a cardiology attending, 2 fellows, 1 resident and several nurse practitioners. There is no overnight call for the resident during this 2-week rotation. Patients are covered by a nocturnist or fellow at night.
Upper level residents rotate through the Greenebaum Cancer Center, where 4 residents care for patients on the Leukemia and Solid Tumor Services. Overnight call is every 4th day with upper level residents working for no more than 28 hours/shift.
A variety of non-teaching services exist to care for our patients and help off-load the resident services. Med-6 is a non-teaching hospitalist service consisting of recent graduates from our program and PA's. Having this service provides a valuable buffer to ensure compliance with the number of admissions to the teaching service. Through their hard work, we were able to admit significantly more patients to all the medicine services in the past year, off-load the teaching services and reducing our overall length of stay -- a huge achievement. The Intermediate Care Unit (IMC - Med 7) is run by hospitalists with an interest in more critically ill patients. This service helps to off-load both MICU and floor patients who have a change in their clinical status. Med 5 and Med 8 are the non-teaching services for the renal transplant service and the Cancer Center, respectively. All these non-teaching services have helped the Department of Medicine achieve an increase in admissions, enhance patient flow in and out of the hospital, and relieve the pressure on the teaching services. They have been essential to the success of our residency program and reflect the strong financial support we enjoy from the institution and the GME leadership at UMMC.
All teams are assisted in their daily work by an interdisciplinary team, including a case manager, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, phlebotomy and IV teams, substance abuse counselors and respiratory therapists. In 2009, UMMC hired additional discharge coordinators specifically to assist the residents in the work of preparing patients for discharge and improving efficiency. A resident partner assists residents in completing clerical and other tasks necessary for optimal patient care. An extensive computer system allows residents to quickly retrieve lab data, studies, discharge summaries and scanned records. We implemented a fully computerized medical record system using EPIC for our ambulatory sites in the fall of 2010. Inpatient EPIC will be live in November 2015. The advent of Wi-Fi workstations and connectivity permit residents to access data, enter orders and retrieve radiologic studies through PACS. Residents can also access information from their smart phones, tablets and their home via a VPN system.
Our Emergency Department is comprehensive and state-of-the-art clinical service, staffed 24/7 by outstanding faculty from the Department of Emergency Department. Approximately half the patients on the medical services are admitted through the UMMC Emergency Department, where over 50,000 patients are evaluated and treated annually. First year residents rotating through the ED function as primary physicians, caring for patients with diverse medical conditions under the supervision of full-time faculty. They evaluate patients with less acute illnesses in the Fast Track area. Maryland Express Care, an integrated consultation and critical care transport system for patients from all points within the state and region, adds diversity to the educational experience.