Picaduras de insectos y alergias

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Picaduras de insectos y alergias

La reacción alérgica a la picadura de abeja ocurre cuando la persona se sensibiliza al veneno por una picadura previa. Esta reacción es diferente a la reacción al veneno en la mordedura de una araña viuda negra que inyecta una potente toxina dentro de la sangre. Por lo general, el veneno de la abeja no es tóxico y sólo causa dolor local e hinchazón. La reacción alérgica se presenta cuando el sistema inmune está demasiado sensibilizado al veneno y produce anticuerpos contra éste. Se liberan histaminas y otras sustancias dentro del torrente sanguíneo, lo que causa la dilatación de los vasos e inflamación del tejido. Las reacciones severas pueden causar shock anafiláctico y una serie de síntomas que ponen en riesgo la vida, como la hinchazón de la garganta y la dificultad para respirar. Las personas que desarrollan alergia a la picadura de abeja pueden llevar consigo un estuche con medicamentos recetados contra la picadura de abejas para contrarrestar la reacción al veneno.

Version Info

  • Last Reviewed on 05/30/2012
  • David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Stuart I. Henochowicz, MD, FACP, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

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This page was last updated: May 7, 2013

         
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