Agranulocitosis

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Definición

Es una insuficiencia de la médula ósea para producir suficientes glóbulos blancos (neutrófilos). La médula ósea es el tejido blando dentro de los huesos que ayuda a formar células sanguíneas.

Nombres alternativos

Granulocitopenia; Granulopenia

Causas

La agranulocitosis puede ser causada por:

  • Trastornos autoinmunitarios
  • Enfermedades de la médula ósea, como mielodisplasia o leucemia linfocítica granular grande
  • Quimioterapia y trasplante de médula ósea
  • Medicamentos, como rituximab, penicilina, captopril, ranitidina, cimetidina, metimazol y propiltiouracilo
  • Preparación para trasplante de médula ósea

La agranulocitosis provoca que una persona no tenga suficiente cantidad de un tipo específico de glóbulos blancos, llamados neutrófilos o granulocitos. Un conteo de neutrófilos bajo (neutropenia) también puede ocurrir cuando los glóbulos blancos son destruidos con mayor rapidez que lo que pueden ser producidos.

Síntomas

Las personas con esta afección son más propensas a tener fiebres e infecciones.

Pruebas y exámenes

Ver: examen de fórmula leucocitaria

Tratamiento

Grupos de apoyo

Expectativas (pronóstico)

Posibles complicaciones

Cuándo contactar a un profesional médico

Prevención

Referencias

Andersohn F, Konzen C, Garbe E. Systematic review: agranulocytosis induced by nonchemotherapy drugs. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:657-665.

Berliner N. Leukopenia and leukocytosis. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 170.

Version Info

  • Last reviewed on 6/5/2012
  • David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

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This page was last updated: May 20, 2014

         
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