Ácido fólico y prevención de anomalías congénitas

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Prevención de anomalías congénitas con ácido fólico (folato)


Existe buena evidencia de que tomar ácido fólico antes y durante el embarazo puede reducir el riesgo de ciertas anomalías congénitas (espina bífida, anencefalia y algunos defectos cardíacos).

Los expertos recomiendan tomar 400 microgramos (mcg) de ácido fólico todos los días antes de quedar embarazada y durante los tres primeros meses del embarazo. Si está planeando quedar en embarazo en el futuro cercano, debe tomar un multivitamínico que contenga 400 mcg de ácido fólico.

Las mujeres que han tenido un bebé con una anomalía congénita del tubo neural necesitarán una dosis más alta de ácido fólico. Si usted ha tenido un bebé con anomalía congénita del tubo neural, debe tomar 400 microgramos de ácido fólico por día, incluso cuando no esté planeando quedar embarazada. Si está planeando quedar en embarazo, debe hablar con su médico e incrementar la ingesta de ácido fólico a 4 miligramos (mg) por día durante el mes antes de quedar embarazada hasta por lo menos la 12ª semana del embarazo.


Johnson TRB, Gregory KD, Niebyl JR. Preconception and prenatal care: Part of the continuum. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 5.

Neural tube defects. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 44. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:203–213.

Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Preconceptional counseling. In: Cunnigham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics. 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2010:chap 7.

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  • Last Reviewed on 09/12/2011
  • Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine; Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Bellevue, Washington; Clinical Teaching Faculty, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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This page was last updated: May 31, 2013

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