Gums - swollen
Toggle: English / Spanish
Swollen gums are abnormally enlarged, bulging, or protruding.
Swollen gums; Gingival swelling
Gum swelling is common. It may involve one or many of the triangle-shaped areas of gum between teeth. These sections are called papillae.
Occasionally, the gums swell enough to block the teeth completely.
Swollen gums may be caused by:
Inflamed gums (gingivitis)
- Infection by a virus or fungus
- Poorly fitting dentures or other dental appliances
- Sensitivity to toothpaste or mouthwash
- Side effect of a medicine
Eat a well-balanced diet that includes fruits and vegetables. Avoid sugary foods and drinks.
Avoid things that can irritate your gums such as mouthwashes, alcohol, and tobacco. Change your toothpaste brand and stop using mouthwashes if sensitivity to these dental products is causing your swollen gums.
Brush and floss your teeth regularly. See a periodontist or dentist at least every 6 months.
If your swollen gums are caused by a reaction to a drug, talk to your health care provider about changing the type of medicine you use. Never stop taking a medicine without first talking to your provider.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if changes to your gums last longer than 2 weeks.
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
Your dentist will examine your mouth, teeth, and gums. You will be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms, such as:
- Do your gums bleed?
- How long has the problem been going on, and has it changed over time?
- How often do you brush your teeth and what kind of toothbrush do you use?
- Do you use any other oral care products?
- When was the last time you had a professional cleaning?
- Have there been any changes to your diet? Do you take vitamins?
- What medicines do you take?
- Have you changed your oral home care recently, such as type of toothpaste or mouthwash you use?
- Do you have any other symptoms such as breath odor, sore throat, or pain?
You may have blood tests such as such as a
(complete blood count) or .
Your dentist or hygienist will show you how to care for your teeth and gums.
Amsterdam JT. Oral medicine. In Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 70.
Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Ear, nose, and throat. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. Seidel's Guide to Physical Examination. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 12.
Chow AW. Infections of the oral cavity, neck, and head. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 65.
- Last reviewed on 2/22/2016
- Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.