Dental care - adult

Toggle: English / Spanish

Definition

Tooth decay and gum disease are caused by plaque, a sticky combination of bacteria and food. Plaque begins to build up on teeth within 20 minutes after eating. If teeth are not cleaned well each day, plaque will lead to tooth decay. If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. Plaque and tartar irritate and inflame the gums. Bacteria and the toxins they produce cause the gums to become:

  • Infected
  • Swollen
  • Tender

By taking good care of your teeth and gums, you can help prevent problems such as tooth decay and gum disease (periodontitis). You should also teach your children how to brush and floss from an early age to help them protect their teeth.

Plaque and tartar lead to a number of problems:

  • Cavities, which are holes that damage the structure of teeth
  • Gingivitis, which are swollen, inflamed, and bleeding gums
  • Periodontitis, is the destruction of the ligaments and bone that support the teeth, often leading to tooth loss
  • Bad breath (halitosis)
  • Abscesses, pain, inability to use teeth
  • Other health problems outside the mouth, from preterm labor to heart disease

Alternative Names

Teeth - caring for; Oral hygiene; Dental hygiene

Information

HOW TO TAKE CARE OF YOUR TEETH

Healthy teeth are clean and have no cavities. Healthy gums are pink and firm. To maintain healthy teeth and gums, follow these steps:

  • Floss at least once per day. It is best to floss before brushing. Flossing removes plaque from between the teeth and on the gums.
  • Brush your teeth twice a day with a soft-bristled toothbrush. Brush 2 minutes each time.
  • Use fluoride toothpaste. The fluoride helps strengthen tooth enamel and helps prevent tooth decay.
  • Replace your toothbrush every 3 to 4 months or sooner if needed. A worn-out toothbrush will not clean your teeth as well.
  • Eat a healthy diet. You are less likely to get gum disease if you eat healthy foods.
  • Avoid sweets and sweetened drinks. Eating and drinking a lot of sweets increases your risk of cavities. If you do eat or drink sweets, brush your teeth soon after.
  • DO NOT smoke. Smokers have more teeth and gum problems than non-smokers.
  • Keep dentures, retainers, and other appliances clean. This includes brushing them regularly. You may also need to soak them in a cleansing solution.
  • Schedule regular checkups with your dentist. Many dentists recommend having the teeth professionally cleaned every 6 months.

Regular teeth cleaning by a dentist removes plaque that may develop, even with careful brushing and flossing. This is very important for getting at areas that are hard to reach on your own. Professional cleaning includes scaling and polishing. This procedure uses instruments to loosen and remove deposits from the teeth. Routine exams may include dental x-rays. Your dentist can catch problems early, so they do not become more serious and expensive to fix.

Ask your dentist:

  • What kind of toothbrush you should use, and how to brush your teeth well. Ask if an electric tooth brush is right for you. Electric tooth brushes have been shown to clean teeth better than manual toothbrushes.
  • How to properly floss your teeth. Overly vigorous or improper flossing may injure the gums.
  • Whether you should use any special appliances or tools, such as water irrigation. This may sometimes help supplement (but not replace) brushing and flossing.
  • Whether you could benefit from particular toothpastes or mouth rinses. In some cases, over-the-counter pastes and rinses may be doing you more harm than good, depending on your condition.

WHEN TO CALL THE DENTIST

Call your dentist if you have symptoms of a cavity that include:

  • Pain in the tooth that occurs for no reason or is caused by food, beverages, brushing or flossing
  • Sensitivity to hot or cold foods or drinks

Get early treatment for gum disease. Call your dentist if you have symptoms of gum disease that include:

  • Red or swollen gums
  • Bleeding in the gums when you brush your teeth
  • Bad breath
  • Loose teeth

References

American Dental Association. Action for Dental Health: Bringing Disease Prevention into Communities. A Statement from the American Dental Association. 2013. Available at: www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Public%20Programs/Files/bringing-disease-prevention-to-communities_adh.ashx. Accessed October 6, 2014.

American Dental Association. Adults Under 40. Available at: www.mouthhealthy.org/en/adults-under-40. Accessed 10/29/14.

Chow AW. Infections of the Oral Cavity, Neck, and Head. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 65.

Messadi DV, Younai FS. Halitosis. Dermatol Clin. 2003;21:147-155.

Shay K. Dental and oral disorders. In: Duthie EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 39.

Version Info

  • Last reviewed on 12/28/2014
  • Ilona Fotek, DMD, MS, private practice in Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch)

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

This page was last updated: May 5, 2015

         
Average rating (6)