What is Ayurveda?
Considered by many scholars to be the oldest healing science, Ayurveda is a holistic approach to health that is designed to help people live long, healthy, and well balanced lives. The term Ayurveda is taken from the Sanskrit words ayus, meaning life or lifespan, and veda, meaning knowledge. It has been practiced in India for at least 5,000 years and has recently become popular in Western cultures. The basic principle of Ayurveda is to prevent and treat illness by maintaining balance in the body, mind, and consciousness through proper drinking, diet, and lifestyle, as well as herbal remedies.
There are two main types of Ayurveda: traditional and Maharishi. Maharishi is a version of traditional Ayurveda based on translations from the classical texts by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Both types of Ayurvedic practitioners prescribe herbs, believe that disease results from an imbalance in the doshas (see below), and use many of the same remedies for treating illness. Maharishi Ayurveda, however, emphasizes the role of supreme consciousness in maintaining good health, and promotes transcendental meditation (TM) as a way to experience the pure consciousness of the universe. It also highlights the expression of positive emotions and the need to attune your life to the natural rhythms of the body.
How does it work?
Just as everyone has a unique fingerprint, according to Ayurvedic beliefs, each person has a distinct pattern of energy -- a specific combination of physical, mental, and emotional characteristics. It is also believed that there are three basic energy types called doshas, present in every person:
- Vata -- energy that controls bodily functions associated with motion, including blood circulation, breathing, blinking, and heartbeat. When vata energy is balanced, there is creativity and vitality. Out of balance, vata produces fear and anxiety.
- Pitta -- energy that controls the body's metabolic systems, including digestion, absorption, nutrition, and temperature. In balance, pitta leads to contentment and intelligence. Out of balance, pitta can cause ulcers and arouse anger.
- Kapha -- energy that controls growth in the body. It supplies water to all body parts, moisturizes the skin, and maintains the immune system. In balance, kapha is expressed as love and forgiveness. Out of balance, kapha leads to insecurity and envy.
Everyone has vata, pitta, and kapha, but usually 1 or 2 are dominant in a particular person. Many things can disturb the energy balance, such as stress, an unhealthy diet, the weather, and strained family relationships. The disturbance shows up as disease. Ayurvedic practitioners prescribe treatments to bring the doshas back into balance.
From a Western medical perspective, stress relief seems to be one of the ways Ayurveda works to help fight illness. For example, studies have found that transcendental meditation, a component of Maharishi Ayurveda, lowers anxiety. Other studies have found that Ayurveda lowers blood pressure and cholesterol, slows the aging process, and speeds recovery from illness. Many herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine have antioxidant effects, which means that they may help protect against long term illnesses such, as heart disease and arthritis. Many Ayurvedic practitioners also recommend a vegetarian diet, which is believed to be better for your heart than diets containing red meat.
What should I expect from an Ayurvedic treatment?
Ayurvedic treatment focuses on rebalancing the doshas. On your first visit, the practitioner will take a detailed medical history, check your pulse, feel your abdomen, examine your tongue, eyes, nails, and skin, and listen to the tone of your voice. The practitioner will also ask you questions about your general health, paying special attention to your lifestyle, diet, habits, and surroundings. The practitioner will then recommend ways to restore your natural dosha balance, which almost always includes changes in lifestyle, especially diet. Practitioners draw from more than 20 types of treatment, but the most commonly prescribed include:
- Pranayama -- breathing exercises. Practicing pranayama helps you feel calm.
- Abhyanga -- rubbing the skin with herbal oil to increase blood circulation and draw toxins out of the body through the skin.
- Rasayana -- using mantras (repeated words or phrases) during meditation combined with certain herbs to rejuvenate a person.
- Yoga -- combining pranayama, movement, and meditation. Yoga has been shown to improve circulation and digestion, and to reduce blood pressure, cholesterol levels, anxiety, and chronic pain.
- Pancha karma -- cleansing the body to purify it and reduce cholesterol. Practitioners use methods that cause sweat, bowel movements, and even vomit to cleanse the body of toxins.
- Herbal medicines -- prescribing herbs to restore dosha balance.
What is Ayurveda good for?
The goal of Ayurvedic medicine is to prevent diseases. Studies have suggested that Ayurveda may be effective at reducing the risk of heart disease. For example, one study found that Ayurveda helped reduce plaque and reverse the thickening of artery walls known as atherosclerosis in both healthy adults, as well as adults at high risk for heart disease. Atherosclerosis is a slow, complex disease in which cholesterol, fats, and other substances build up in the inner lining of an artery. This build-up, known as plaque, can lead to heart attack and stroke.
Combining yoga with a certain Ayurvedic herbal remedy may reduce pain and disability in people with arthritis.
A number of Ayurvedic herbal remedies have been examined, though sometimes high quality studies are lacking. For example, guggul (Commiphora mukul), a traditional Ayurvedic medication used to treat high cholesterol, is widely used in India. It appears to block production of cholesterol in the liver, lowering cholesterol levels. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds can lower LDL “bad” cholesterol and triglycerides (fats in the blood), and raise HDL “good” cholesterol levels. Its effects seem to come from its ability to lower the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine, and may be related to the high fiber content of the seed. The high fiber content of fenugreek seeds may also help control blood sugar if you have diabetes.
Other Ayurvedic herbs are being studied as treatments for Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, asthma, cancer, dementia, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), herpes, high blood pressure, Parkinson's disease, perimenopausal problems, and premenstrual syndrome, among many other conditions. Ayurvedic herbs combined with conventional medications may also be helpful for acne, chronic constipation, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, and uterine fibroids.
Are there any risks?
Most Ayurvedic therapies, such as pranayama and rasayana, are unlikely to have bad side effects. Ayurvedic herbs, however, may interact with medications, and like all herbs, they are not right for every person; speak with your physician. In addition, heavy metals, such as lead and mercury, have contaminated some Ayurvedic herb supplements. Ask your health care provider about choosing quality supplements for you and your family. Be sure to talk to your doctor before trying Ayurveda, especially if you take medicines or have to eat a special diet (to control diabetes, for example).
How can I find a qualified practitioner?
For a list of qualified practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine in your area, contact the National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine (NIAM).
Although none of the 50 states offer a license to practice Ayurveda, there are several institutions across the United States that have educational programs, including The California College of Ayurveda, located in Grass Valley, California, and the Kerala Ayurveda Academy in Foster City, California. The school issues a certificate of Clinical Ayurvedic Specialist, at www.ayurvedacollege.com.
Others sources of information include:
Balasubramani SP, Venkatasubramanian P, Kukkupuni SK, Patwardhan B. Plant-based Rasayana drugs from Ayurveda. Chin J Integr Med. 2011;17(2):88-94.
Baliga MS. Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(12):1301-8.
Bhat S, Lavekar GS. Ayurvedic approach to pathya (ideal diet planning)--an appraisal. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2005;35(2):147-56.
Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D. A 32-Week Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic Drug, on Osteoarthritis of the Knees. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10(5):236-245.
Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D. Chainani-Wu N, Silverman S Jr, Reingold A, et al., A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(7-8):437-46.
Garodia P, Ichikawa H, Malani N, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. From ancient medicine to modern medicine: ayurvedic concepts of health and their role in inflammation and cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007;5(1):25-37.
Gautam R, Saklani A, Jachak SM. Indian medicinal plants as a source of antimycobacterial agents. JEthnopharmacol. 2007;110(2):200-34.
Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Pushpangadan P. Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of 'Rasayana' herbs of Ayurveda. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;99(2):165-78.
Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):141-53.
Kales SN, Christophi CA, Saper RB. Hematopoietic toxicity from lead-containing Ayurvedic medications. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(7):CR295-8.
Khalsa KP. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):129-42. Review.
Krishnamurthy MN, Telles S. Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and ayurveda on older adults in a residential home. J Gerontol Nurs. 2007;33(2):17-23.
Mamtani R, Mamtani R. Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiol Rev. 2005;13(3):155-62.
Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121(5):683-90.
Narayana A, Subhose V. Standardization of Ayurvedic formulations: a scientific review. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2005;35(1):21-32.
Park J, Ernst E. Ayurvedic medicine for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005;34(5):705-13.
Samy RP, Pushparaj PN, Gopalakrishnakone P. A compilation of Bioactive Compounds from Ayurveda. Bioinformation. 2008;3(3):100-10.
Singh BB, Mishra LC, Vinjamury SP, et al. The effectiveness of Commiphora mukul for osteoarthritis of the knee: an outcomes study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9(3):74-79.
Singh OP, Das B, Padhi MM, et al. Kushtha (skin disorders) in vedic and other religious literatures -- A review. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2002;32(1):51-55.
Singh RB, Pella D, Otsuka K, et al. New insights into circadian aspects of health and disease. J Assoc Physicians India. 2002;50:1416-1425.
Singh RH. An assessment of the ayurvedic concept of cancer and a new paradigm of anticancer treatment in Ayurveda. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(5):609-614.
Siripurapu KB., Gupta P, Bhatia G, et al. Adaptogenic and anti-amnesic properties of Evolvulus alsinoides in rodents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 5-14-2005.
Sreemantula S, Nammi S, Kolanukonda R, et al. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model. BMC.Complement Altern Med. 1-19-2005;5(1):1.
Subapriya R, Nagini S. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Curr Med Chem Anti-Canc Agents. 2005;5(2):149-6.
Subhose V, Srinivas P, Narayana A. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurveda. Bull Indian Inst Hist MedHyderabad. 2005;35(2):83-92.
Thabrew M I, Senaratna L, Samarawickrema N, et al. Antioxidant potential of two polyherbal. preparations used in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(3):285-291.
Tripathi YB. Molecular approach to ayurveda. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000;38(5):409-414.
Tripathi YB, Tripathi P, Arjmandi BH. Nutraceuticals and cancer management. Front Biosci. 5-1-2005;10:1607-1618.
Ulrich-Merzenich G, Panek D, Zeitler H, Vetter H, Wagner H. Drug development from natural products: exploiting synergistic effects. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(3):208-19.
Vayalil PK, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Protective effects of Rasayanas on cyclophosphamide- and radiation-induced damage. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(6):787-96.
Virdi J, Sivakami S, Shahani S, et al. Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88(1):107-111.
Wu J, Xia C, Meier J, et al. The hypolipidemic natural product guggulsterone acts as an antagonist of the bile acid receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16(7):1590-1597.
- Last Reviewed on 10/02/2011
- Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
This page was last updated: May 7, 2013