Diuretics - loop diuretics
Osteoporosis (bone loss) is the primary disease associated with long-term calcium deficiency. It may be associated with bone pain, spinal deformity, and tooth loss. Depleted levels can also cause muscle cramps, irregular heartbeat, and depression.Magnesium
Magnesium deficiency affects calcium and vitamin D levels in the body, and may be associated with muscle cramps, heart irregularities, high blood pressure, diabetes, and osteoporosis (bone loss).Phosphorus
Although phosphorus deficiency is rare, chronic low levels are associated with muscle weakness, bone pain, mental confusion, loss of appetite, anemia, increased susceptibility to infection, respiratory difficulties, seizures, and even death.Potassium
Symptoms of deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, drowsiness, feelings of apprehension, excessive thirst, irrational behavior, fatigue, muscle pain, and weakness (usually of the lower limbs). Severe cases may lead to irregular heartbeat.Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Symptoms of depleted thiamine levels include weakness, fatigue, anorexia, constipation, memory loss, confusion, and depression. Deficiency may lead to beriberi, a condition characterized by inflammation of nerves, heart irregularities, and fluid retention.Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency may include weakness, nervousness, insomnia, mental confusion, irritability, and anemia. Chronic low levels of this nutrient may also increase the risk of heart disease, as well as colon and prostate cancers.Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin C deficiency may include bruising, fever, anemia, emotional changes, swollen and bleeding gums, fatigue, lethargy, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), increased susceptibility to infection, slow wound healing, and swelling of the lower limbs. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, a disorder that affects muscles and bones and is potentially fatal. Fortunately, scurvy is rare these days because vitamin C is widely available in dietary sources.
The information presented here covers some of the nutrients that may be affected when you take certain medications. If you have the signs and symptoms listed, it doesn't always mean you have low levels of these nutrients. Many things affect the level of nutrients, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as how long you have been taking the medication. Please talk with your health care provider. He or she can best address your health care needs and determine whether you are at risk for low levels of any nutrients.
Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.
Bierwirth J, Ulbricht KU, Schmidt RE, Witte T. Association of common variable immunodeficiency with vitamin B(6) deficiency. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007. [Epub ahead of print]
Cashman KD. Diet, nutrition, and bone health. J Nutr. 2007;137:2507S-12S.
Chiang EP, Smith DE, Selhub J, Dallal G, Wang YC, Roubenoff R. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R1254-62.
Hordyjewska A, Pasternak K. Magnesium role in cardiovascular diseases. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59:108-13.
Humphreys M. Potassium disturbances and associated electrocardiogram changes. Emerg Nurse. 2007;15(5):28-34.
Lee BY, Yanamandra K, Bocchini JA Jr. Thiamin deficiency: a possible major cause of some tumors? (review). Oncol Rep. 2005;14:1589-92.
Liamis G, Mitrogianni Z, Liberopoulos EN, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf M. Electrolyte disturbances in patients with hyponatremia. Intern Med. 2007;46:685-90.
Lin SH, Halperin ML. Hypokalemia: a practical approach to diagnosis and its genetic basis. Curr MedChem. 2007;14:1551-65.
McDaniel MH, Williams SE. Calcium primer: current controversies and common clinical questions. J Clin Densitom. 2013;16:389-93.
Nielsen FH, Milne DB, Klevay LM, Gallagher S, Johnson L. Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:121-32.
Ondrak KS, Morgan DW. Physical activity, calcium intake and bone health in children and adolescents. Sports Med. 2007;37:587-600.
Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.; 2001:439-441.
Rakel. Textbook of Family Medicine 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.
Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Serum magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. Arch Dis Child. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
Sheweita SA, Khoshhal KI. Calcium metabolism and oxidative stress in bone fractures: role of antioxidants. Curr Drug Metab. 2007;8:519-25.
Spinneker A, Sola R, Lemmen V, Castillo MJ, Pietrzik K, González-Gross M. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences--an overview.Nutr Hosp. 2007;22:7-24.
Wooley JA. Characteristics of thiamin and its relevance to the management of heart failure. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23(5):487-93.
- Last reviewed on 9/21/2014
- Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed HealthCare Network. Also reviewed by the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.