Cardiovascular medications - beta-blockers

Medications

Depletions

Coenzyme Q10

A deficiency of the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 may be associated with chronic conditions including heart disease and high blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include muscle weakness and pain, gingivitis, and weakened immune function.

Melatonin

Reduced levels of melatonin in the body have been associated with sleep disturbances and jet lag. Some clinicians report wide-ranging symptoms associated with melatonin deficiency, including problems with hormonal function and fertility. Other problems may include immunological and blood clotting issues.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Symptoms of depleted levels of thiamine include weakness, fatigue, anorexia, constipation, memory loss, confusion, and depression. Deficiency may lead to beriberi, a condition characterized by inflammation of nerves, heart irregularities, and fluid retention.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency leads to abnormal bone formation (rickets) in children and softening of the bones (osteomalacia) in adults. Vitamin D deficiency interferes with calcium absorption, leading to increased risk of fractures, osteoporosis (bone loss), and muscle weakness. More recently, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to compromised immunity, cancer, and other chronic conditions. Since this nutrient is fat soluble, prolonged periods of deficiency are required to produce these symptoms.

Editorial Note

The selected depletions information presented here identifies nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms mentioned, it does not necessarily mean you are nutrient deficient. Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as the length of time you have been taking the medication. Please consult your health care provider. He or she can best assess your health care needs and determine whether you are at risk for nutrient depletions from these medications, as well as others not listed here.

Supporting Research

Acuna-Castroviejo D, Escames G, Rodriguez MI, Lopez LC. Melatonin role in the mitochondrial function. Front Biosci. 2007;12:947-63.

Altun A, Ugur-Altun B. Melatonin: therapeutic and clinical utilization. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:835-45.

Bonakdar RA, Guarneri E. Coenzyme Q10. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:1065-70.

Dunn, SP, Bleske B, Dorsch M, Macaulay T, Van Tassell B, Vardeny O. Nutrition and heart failure: impact of drug therapies and management strategies. Nutr. Clin Pract. 2009;24:60-75.

Lewy AJ, Emens J, Jackman A, Yuhas K. Circadian uses of melatonin in humans. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:403-12.

Littarru GP, Tiano L. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol. 2007;37:31-7.

Muñoz-Hoyos A, Hubber E, Escames G, et al. Effect of propranolol plus exercise on melatonin and growth hormone levels in children with growth delay. J Pineal Res. 2001;30:75-81.

Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.;2001:450.

Pepe S, Marasco SF, Haas SJ, Sheeran FL, Krum H, Rosenfeldt FL. Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrion. 2007;7 Suppl:S154-67.

Piccirillo JF. Melatonin. Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:331-3.

Powers HJ. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1352-60.

Quinzii CM, Hirano M, DiMauro S. CoQ10 deficiency diseases in adults. Mitochondrion. 2007;7 Suppl:S122-6.

Rakel. Textbook of Family Medicine, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

Reiter RJ. Melatonin: clinical relevance. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;17:273-85.

Young AJ, Johnson S, Steffens DC, Doraiswamy PM. Coenzyme Q10: a review of its promise as a neuroprotectant. CNS Spectr. 2007;12:62-8.

Version Info

  • Last reviewed on 9/21/2014
  • Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed HealthCare Network. Also reviewed by the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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