Anticonvulsant medications - miscellaneous


Miscellaneous anticonvulsant medication include:

Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, Tegretol, and Tegretol-XR)



Osteoporosis (bone loss) is the main disease that comes from insufficient calcium. Lack of calcium also may be linked with bone pain and spinal problems. Low levels can also cause:

  • Muscle cramps
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Depression

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Low levels of folic acid have been linked to:

  • Anemia
  • Heart disease
  • Birth defects

Symptoms may include fatigue, mouth sores, swollen tongue, depression, and poor growth.

Vitamin H (Biotin)

Low levels of biotin are linked with:

  • Dry skin
  • Hair that breaks easily
  • Hair loss
  • Depression or altered mental status
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle pain

Vitamin D

Vitamin D works with calcium to keep bones strong. Low levels of vitamin D can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, conditions where the bones get soft and thin. It can also raise the risk of osteoporosis. More recently, studies have linked low levels of vitamin D with:

  • Weakened immune function
  • Sleep problems
  • Allergies
  • Obesity

Editorial Note

The information presented here covers some of the nutrients that may be affected when you take certain medications. If you have the signs and symptoms listed, it does not always mean you have low levels of these nutrients. Many things affect the level of nutrients, including your:

  • Medical history
  • Diet
  • Lifestyle

As well as how long you have been taking the medication. Please talk with your health care provider. They can best address your health care needs to determine whether you are at risk for low levels of any nutrients.

Supporting Research

Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.

Attilakos A, Papakonstantinou E, Schulpis K, Voudris K, Katsarou E, Mastroyianni S, Garoufi A. Early effect of sodium valproate and carbamazepine monotherapy on homocysteine metabolism in children with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2006;71(2-3):229-32.

Deda G, Caksen H, Içagasioglu D.Effect of long-term carbamazepine therapy on serum lipids, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2003;16(2):193-6.

Kjær D, Horvath-Puhó E, Christensen J, Vestergaard M, Czeizel AE, Sørensen HT, Olsen J. Antiepileptic drug use, folic acid supplementation, and congenital abnormalities: a population-based case-control study. BJOG. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

Kumar N. Neurologic Presentations of Nutritional Deficiencies. Neurologic Clinics. 2010; 26(1).

Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Cattaruzza T, Scapicchio PL. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion: clinical evidence in a neurological population. Neurologist. 2004;10(6):338-43.

Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH: LexiComp, Inc.;2001:390-395.

Reynolds E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(11):949-60.

Version Info

  • Last reviewed on 8/27/2014
  • Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed HealthCare Network. Also reviewed by the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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