Endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium, the inner lining of the heart and heart valves. Most cases are caused by a bacterial infection. Endocarditis is a serious condition that can lead to severe medical complications, even death, if not treated.
Signs and Symptoms
The most common symptom of endocarditis is fever. The fever may be high or low, and it may seem to come and go. Other common symptoms include the following:
- Muscle weakness
- Muscle, joint, and back pain
- Night sweats
- Shortness of breath
- Unnatural pallor
- Weight loss
- Heart murmur
- Painful spleen or abdomen
- Bloody urine
- Stiff neck
- Heart attack
- Cold, painful hands and feet
- Painful tips of fingers or toes
- Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
What Causes It?
Most causes of endocarditis are related to a bacterial or fungal infection. Your body can usually fight off an infection, even if bacteria reach your heart. However, when heart valves or tissues are damaged, they provide a good place for bacteria to lodge and multiply.
Your risk of endocarditis increases if you have:
- Heart disease or mechanical heart valves
- Poor dental hygiene
- Kidney disease
- Dental procedures that irritate the gums
- Intestinal and respiratory surgery
- Gallbladder surgery
- Vaginal delivery with an infection present
What to Expect at Your Doctor's Office
Your doctor will listen to your heart and lungs, take your pulse, and check your eyes and skin. You will likely undergo several tests, including:
- Blood tests
- Urine analysis
- Computed tomography (CT) scan
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Cinefluoroscopy (a motion-picture type heart scan)
Usually, your doctor will admit you to the hospital, possibly in intensive care, until your symptoms are under control.
Your doctor will treat endocarditis with high doses of antibiotics, almost always intravenously. Sometimes, surgery is also required.
Endocarditis is usually treated with a combination of 2 to 3 antibiotics, such as penicillin, gentamicin, vancomycin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, oxacillin, rifampin, and ampicillin. Treatment is determined by what type of bacteria is infecting your heart and generally takes 2 to 6 weeks. In patients with endocarditis, long term daily use of aspirin does not reduce the risk of embolic events, but may be associated with a higher level of bleeding.
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
Endocarditis has serious consequences and requires aggressive medical treatment. Endocarditis should never be treated with alternative therapies alone. Inform all of your health care providers of any alternative medicine therapies or supplements you are using. If you are pregnant, or thinking of becoming pregnant, do not use any CAM therapies unless directed to do so by your physician.
Following these nutritional tips may help reduce symptoms:
- Eliminate suspected food allergens, such as dairy (milk, cheese, and ice cream), wheat (gluten), soy, corn, preservatives, and chemical food additives. Your health care provider may want to test you for food allergies.
- Eat foods high in B-vitamins and iron, such as whole grains (if no allergy), dark leafy greens (such as spinach and kale), and sea vegetables (such as dulse, kelp, and wakame).
- Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell peppers).
- Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
- Use healthy oils in the diet, such as olive oil or coconut oil.
- Reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids, found in commercially baked goods, such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
- Avoid alcohol and tobacco.
- Exercise lightly 5 days a week if your health care provider says you can.
You may address nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:
- A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium.
- Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 to 2 capsules or 1 to 2 tbs. of oil daily, to help decrease inflammation and help with immunity. Omega-3 fatty acids may increase the effects of blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin). Speak with your physician.
- Vitamin C, 500 to 1,000 mg daily, as an antioxidant and for immune support.
- Alpha-lipoic acid, 25 to 50 mg twice daily, for antioxidant support. Can potentially interfere with some diabetes and cancer medications. Talk to your doctor.
- Magnesium citrate, 200 to 400 mg daily, for heart health. Make sure your doctor approves magnesium supplementation. Magnesium can potentially affect blood pressure and kidney function, among other problems, and can interact with many medications.
- Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), 100 mg twice a day, for heart protection. CoQ10 can affect blood pressure and may decrease the effectiveness of blood-thinning medicines, such as warfarin (Coumadin).
- Resveratrol (from red wine), 50 to 200 mg daily, to help decrease inflammation and for antioxidant effects.
- Lycopene, 5 mg, 1 to 3 times daily, for antioxidant and blood pressure lowering activity. People with prostate cancer may wish to avoid lycopene. More research is needed.
- L-theanine, 200 mg, 1 to 3 times daily, for stress and nervous system support.
- L-arginine, 1 to 2 gm, 3 times daily, for blood vessel and immune support. Arginine may affect blood pressure and blood flow through organs and other tissues. Talk to your doctor.
- Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5 to 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, when needed for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Some acidophilus products may need refrigeration -- check labels carefully. People who are severely immune compromised, or who are taking immunosuppressive drugs, should speak with their physicians before taking probiotic supplements.
Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to determine the safest and most effective botanical therapies before starting treatment. Always tell your health care provider about any herbs you may be taking. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 to 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 to 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 to 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.
- Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), 150 to 300 mg, 2 to 3 times daily, for blood pressure support. You may also take a tincture of this mushroom extract, 30 to 60 drops, 2 to 3 times a day. Reishi can alter blood pressure and interact with many medications, including blood-thining medications. Talk to your health care provider.
- Garlic (Allium sativum), standardized extract, 400 mg, 2 to 3 times daily, for heart health. Garlic supplements may increase the effectiveness of certain blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin), and can interact with many medications, particularly some HIV medications and isoniazid (Nydrazid). Talk with your physician.
Although few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic therapies, professional homeopaths may consider the following remedies as a supplemental treatment for the symptoms of endocarditis, as long as the underlying infection has been appropriately treated. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate treatment for each individual.
- Aconite if you fear death, have rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) with full, hard pounding pulse of sudden onset.
- Cactus grandiflorus for endocarditis with mitral insufficiency. You may have a feeble, irregular pulse and feel a chest constriction.
- Digitalis if you have an irregular pulse with a sensation as if your heart would stop if you moved.
- Spongia if you have a sensation of the heart swelling.
Acupuncture may help improve immunity and strengthen heart function.
In addition to monitoring your condition while you are in the hospital, your health care provider will order follow up procedures, such as blood tests, to determine how well the prescribed treatment is working.
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- Last reviewed on 3/20/2014
- Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
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