Electrólitos

Toggle: English / Spanish

Definición

Los electrólitos son minerales presentes en la sangre y otros líquidos corporales que llevan una carga eléctrica.

Los electrólitos afectan la cantidad de agua en el cuerpo, la acidez de la sangre (el pH), la actividad muscular y otros procesos importantes. Usted pierde electrolitos cuando suda y debe reponerlos tomando líquidos.

Los electrólitos comunes abarcan:

  • Calcio
  • Cloruro
  • Magnesio
  • Fósforo
  • Potasio
  • Sodio

Los electrólitos pueden ser ácidos, bases y sales.

Los electrólitos se pueden medir por medio de estudios de laboratorio de la sangre de diferentes maneras. Cada electrólito se puede ordenar como un examen por aparte, como:

Nota: el suero es la parte de la sangre que no contiene células.

El sodio, el potasio y el cloruro también se pueden solicitar como parte de un ionograma o un grupo de pruebas metabólicas básicas.

El examen de electrólitos urinarios mide los electrólitos en la orina. Generalmente mide los niveles de calcio, cloruro, potasio o sodio.

Version Info

  • Last Reviewed on 09/20/2011
  • David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch)

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

This page was last updated: May 31, 2013

         
Average rating (28)