Producción de glóbulos rojos

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La sangre lleva varias sustancias que deben ser transportadas de una parte del cuerpo hacia otra. Los glóbulos rojos son un componente importante de la sangre. Su función es transportar oxígeno a los tejidos corporales e intercambiarlo por dióxido de carbono, el cual es transportado y eliminado por los pulmones.

Los glóbulos rojos se forman en la médula ósea roja. Las células madre de la médula ósea roja, llamadas hemocitoblastos, dan lugar a todos los elementos de la sangre. Si hemocitoblasto se convierte en una célula llamada proeritroblasto, se convertirá en un nuevo glóbulo rojo.

La formación de un glóbulo rojo a partir de un hemocitoblasto toma alrededor de dos días. El cuerpo produce unos dos millones de glóbulos rojos cada segundo.

La sangre está compuesta por elementos líquidos y celulares. Si una muestra de sangre se pone a girar en una centrífuga, los elementos formados y la matriz de sangre fluida se pueden separar entre sí. La sangre contiene un 45% de glóbulos rojos, menos de 1% de glóbulos blancos y plaquetas y un 55% de plasma.

Version Info

  • Last Reviewed on 02/08/2012
  • Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Palm Beach Cancer Institute, West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

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This page was last updated: July 1, 2013

         
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